Silverman, Lloyd H. (1985). Research on psychoanalytic psychodynamic propositions. Clinical Psychology Review, 5 (3), 247-257
Discusses a research program in which the present author has been involved that deals with the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. In this method, verbal and/or pictorial stimuli, some of which contain content related to unconscious wishes, fears, and fantasies and other of which are (relatively) neutral, are presented to Ss at 4-msec exposures. A variety of psychoanalytically based hypotheses have been tested on various clinical and nonclinical populations. Two major findings have emerged: (a) a number of clinical groups (e.g., schizophrenics, depressives, stutterers) have shown intensifications of their symptoms after the subliminal exposure of stimuli designed to stir up particular unconscious conflicts; and (b) various clinical and nonclinical groups have manifested enhanced adaptive behavior after the subliminal exposure of the message “Mommy and I are one,” conceived as activating unconscious symbiotic fantasies.
Bryant-Tuckett, Rose; Silverman, Lloyd H. (1984). Effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31 (3), 295-305.
Divided 64 10.8 – 19.3 yr old emotionally disturbed residents of a treatment school into an experimental and control group matched for age, IQ, and reading ability. Both groups were seen 5 times/week for 6 weeks for tachistoscopic exposures of a subliminal stimulus. The stimulus for the experimental group was the phrase, “Mommy and I are one,”
conceived of as activating symbiotic fantasies that in a number of previous studies with varying groups of Ss had led to greater adaptive behavior. The control group was exposed to the phrase, “People are walking.” Results show that experimental Ss manifested significantly greater improvement on the California Achievement Tests– Reading than did the controls. On 5 of 6 secondary variables–arithmetic achievement, self-concept, the handing in of homework assignments, independent classroom functioning, and self-imposed limits on TV viewing–the experimental Ss showed better adaptive functioning. It is suggested that activation of unconscious symbiotic fantasies can increase the effectiveness of counseling and teaching. (42 ref)
Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Stanley, Scott (1984). The direct hypnotic suggestion of altered mind/body perception. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 95-102.
Attentional and emotional shifts are examined following a hypnotically suggested out-of-body experience (OBE). Two hypotheses were testes: 1) that the OBE is maintained by blocking the perception of body-relevant stimulation at a sensory level; 2) that a hypnotically produced OBE is an emotionally neutral or even pleasant experience. Fourteen hypnotic subjects and 15 simulating Ss were administered a standardized induction followed by suggestions for an OBE. Geometric figures were then presented to the body but not to the “awareness.” Although hypnotic Ss reported that they could not see the information, they still correctly “guess” the identity of the figures beyond chance levels. Thus, body-relevant information was obviously not blocked at a sensory level, but was kept out of awareness by some other mechanism. In addition, a significantly greater number of hypnotized than simulating Ss reported the OBE to be troubling and unpleasant, despite explicit suggestions for a positive experience. The potentially disturbing nature of OBEs and ways to minimize risk of negative affect are discussed.
Palumbo, Robert; Gillman, Irene (1984). Effects of subliminal activation of oedipal fantasies on competitive performance: A replication and extension. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172 (12), 737-741.
Conducted a subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment in which the effects of 5 subliminal stimuli were sought on the dart-throwing performance of 40 male Ss (aged 22-46 years). The stimuli consisted of the following messages, each accompanied by a congruent picture: “beating dad is ok,” “beating dad is wrong,” “beating him is ok,” “beating him is wrong,” and “people are walking.” The 1st 2 stimuli were intended to activate competitive motives within the context of the Oedipus complex; the next 2, competitive motives outside that context; and the last message was intended as a control stimulus. Findings show that “beating dad is ok” led to greater dart-throwing accuracy than each of the other 4 conditions, which, in turn, did not differ from each other. This finding replicates a result reported by L. H. Silverman et al (1978) and is in keeping with the formulation that the activation of oedipal motives can affect competitive performance (7 ref)
Venturino, Michael (1984, August). Perceptual monitoring and allocation of attention (Dissertation, University of Maine). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2), 707-B.
“The processing ability of perceptual monitoring was investigated using a dichotic listening and shadowing task. Individual differences in the effectiveness of perceptual monitoring were also investigated by using susceptibility to hypnosis as a grouping factor. Subjects’ skin conductance response (SCR) was conditioned to specific words by an electric shock. These conditioned words, and words semantically and acoustically related to them were presented in the relevant and irrelevant messages of the dichotic listening and shadowing task. Probability and magnitude measures of SCRs and subjects’ verbal shadowing accuracy were used to assess performance. SCRs to critical words were significantly greater than to control words in both the relevant and irrelevant messages. However, the SCRs to words in the irrelevant messages were not as great as those responses elicited to words in the relevant message. The pattern of responding to the semantically and acoustically related words was similar for both the relevant and irrelevant messages. Subjects low in hypnotic susceptibility responded to critical words with significantly greater probability and magnitude of response than did subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis of the shadowing performance data showed that the perceptual monitoring process was quite effective. The occurrence of the conditioned word in the irrelevant message caused a shift in attention to the irrelevant message, manifested by a shadowing error. Subjects shadowing the message in their left ear committed significantly more shadowing errors than subjects shadowing the message in their right ear. No differences in shadowing performance were obtained for the hypnosis factor. The results were interpreted in terms of the deployment of attention to the environment, and the relationship of this deployment to the perceptual monitoring process” (p. 707).
Wallace, Benjamin; Patterson, Sondra Lou (1984). Hypnotic susceptibility and performance on various attention-specific cognitive tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 175-181.
Conducted two experiments to investigate cognitive performance as related to level of hypnotic susceptibility. In Experiment 1 time-to-location of a target in a visual search task was assessed. For this task the letter Z was embedded either within straight- form or round-form letters. Results indicated that high hypnotizable Subjects were significantly faster than low-hypnotizability Subjects in locating the embedded letter. Experiment 2 investigated performance on single- and double-digit arithmetic (addition) problems as a function of hypnosis susceptibility level. Subjects were presented with arithmetic problems and were asked to complete them within a 60-s time period. Highs completed a significantly greater number of double-digit problems but not single-digit problems within this time frame than did lows. The results of the two experiments are explained in terms of the application of differing strategies or operations by highs and lows in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Borgeat, Francois; Goulet, Jean (1983). Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 759-766.
This study was to measure eventual psychophysiological changes resulting from auditory subliminal activation or deactivation suggestions. 18 subjects were alternately exposed to a control situation and to 25-dB activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-dB white noise. Physiological measures (EMG, heart rate, skin-conductance levels and responses, and skin temperature)
temperature) were recorded while subjects listened passively to the suggestions, during a stressing task that followed and after that task. Multi-variate analysis of variance showed a significant effect of the activation subliminal suggestions during and following the stressing task. This result is discussed as indicating effects of consciously unrecognized perceptions on psycho- physiological responses.
Crawford, Helen J.; Allen, Steven N. (1983). Enhanced visual memory during hypnosis as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112 (4), 662-685.
To investigate the hypothesis that hypnosis has an enhancing effect on imagery processing, as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies, four experiments compared performance of low and high, or low, medium, and high hypnotically responsive subjects in waking and hypnosis conditions on a successive visual memory discrimination task that required detecting differences between successively presented picture pairs in which one member of the pair was slightly altered. Consistently, hypnotically responsive individuals showed enhanced mean number of correct performance during hypnosis, whereas nonresponsive ones did not. Hypnotic responsiveness correlated .52 (p < .001) with enhanced performance during hypnosis, but it was uncorrelated with waking performance (Experiment 3). Reaction time was not affected by hypnosis, although high hypnotizables were faster than lows in their responses (Experiments 1 and 2). Subjects reported enhanced imagery vividness on the self-report Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire during hypnosis. The differential effect between lows and highs was in the anticipated direction but not significant (Experiments 1 and 2). Two cognitive strategies appeared to mediate visual memory performance: (a) detail strategy (memorization and rehearsal of individual details) and (b) holistic strategy (looking at and remembering the whole picture with accompanying imagery). Both lows and highs reported predominantly detail-oriented strategies during waking; however the highs shifted to a more holistic strategy during hypnosis. It appears that high hypnotizables have a greater capacity than lows for cognitive flexibility (Battig, 1979). Results are discussed in terms of Paivio's (1971) dual coding theory and Craik and Tulving's (1975) depth of processing theory. The authors also discuss whether hypnosis involves a shift in cerebral dominance, as reflected by the cognitive strategy changes and enhanced imagery processing. Spanos, Nicholas P.; Dubreuil, Debora L., Saad, Carol L., Gorassini, Donald (1983). Hypnotic elimination of prism-induced aftereffects: Perceptual effect or responses to experimental demands?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92 (2), 216-222. Two experiments assessed adaptation to displacing prisms in hypnotically limb-anesthetized Ss. Experiment I with 18 college students disconfirmed the hypothesis that the displacement aftereffect is eliminated in limb-anesthetized hypnotic Ss who adapt to prisms in the absence of a visual target. Such Ss showed as large a displacement aftereffect as control Ss who received neither a hypnotic induction procedure nor an anesthesia suggestion. Experiment II with 30 undergraduates demonstrated that under some testing conditions hypnotic Ss complied with experimental demands and eliminated the behavioral but not the perceptual component of the aftereffect. dergraduates demonstrated that under some testing conditions hypnotic Ss complied with experimental demands and eliminated the behavioral but not the perceptual component of the aftereffect. 1982 Farthing, G. William; Brown, Scott W.; Venturino, Michael (1982). Effects of hypnotizability and mental imagery on signal detection sensitivity and response bias. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 289-305. It was hypothesized that the ability to selectively concentrate attention on mental images would be greater among high hypnotizable Ss than among low hypnotizable Ss, as indicated by a greater interference with visual signal detection by concurrent visual mental imagery in response to specified nouns. This hypothesis was not supported in the overall results, though the finding of a significant interference effect among the high hypnotizable female Ss, but not among other subgroups, indicates that further research with a more refined procedure might be worthwhile. On the control trials without images, the high hypnotizable Ss made more false alarms than lows, and had a significantly different bias index indicating that high hypnotizable Ss were more likely than lows to respond "yes" when uncertain about whether the signal was present; false alarms can be interpreted as a nonhypnotic measure of suggestibility. The high and low hypnotizable Ss did not differ in their times to generate images in response to the specified nouns. Saccuzzo, Dennis P.; Safran, Deborah; Anderson, Virginia; McNeill, Brian (1982). Visual information processing in high and low susceptible subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 32-44. High and low hypnotically susceptible Ss were compared in their ability to identify a briefly exposed informational target stimulus consisting of a letter when it was preceded (forward masking) or followed by (backward masking) a noninformational mask stimulus. There were 4 intervals between the target and mask and a no mask control for both forward and backward masking. The experiment was replicated in 2 independent sessions. In Session 1 high susceptible Ss were superior to lows in identifying the target stimulus. The superiority was not maintained in Session 2. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. Silverman, Lloyd H.; Lachmann, Frank M.; Milich, Robert H. (1982). The search for oneness. New York: International Universities Press. This book summarizes research on preconscious activation (subliminal psychodynamic activation) of fantasies of oneness, following tachistoscopic presentation of words like, "Mommy and I are one." It represents an attempt to test and validate, through experimental investigation, psychoanalytic concepts. The authors show how such fantasies can improve psychosocial adaptation for people with varying kinds of psychopathology. Wallace, Benjamin; Fisher, Leslie E. (1982). Hypnotically induced limb anesthesia and adaptation to displacing prisms: Replication requires adherence to critical procedures. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (5), 390-391. N. P. Spanos et al. (see PA, vol 66:7289) reported a failure to confirm the results of an experiment on prism adaptation reported by the present authors (see PA, vol 65:6956) that required Ss to adapt to a prismatically displaced environment when their adapting limb was hypnotically anesthetized. The present authors argue that the failure of Spanos et al to replicate their findings is due to their failure to duplicate the critical conditions of the experiment. (7 ref) 1980 Bauer, Herbert; Berner, Peter; Steinringer, Hermann; Stacher, Georg (1980). Effects of hypnotic suggestions of sensory change on event-related cortical slow potential shifts. Archiv fur Psychologie, 133 (3), 161-169. "The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether cortical slow potentials related to a S1-S2 paradigm are influenced by hypnotic suggestions of sensory change. Five healthy subjects susceptible to hypnosis participated each in two identical experiments with three conditions. In condition (1) and (2) each three intensities of 800 and 4000 Hz tones were presented. Preceding condition (2) hypnosis was induced and the subjects received the suggestion to hear the 800 but not the 4000 Hz tones. In condition (3), the tones were presented as S1 and a flash as S2. The subjects received the same suggestions as in (2) and a motor response to S2 was required. EEG was recorded from Cz. In (1) 800 and 4000 Hz tones caused negativities of equal amplitude, in (2) only minute negativities developed, possibly due to hypnosis induced deactivation. In (3) the S1-S2 related negativities were significantly smaller in amplitude during 4000 Hz tones than during 800 Hz tones, while the negativities preceding S2 differed only after the most intense S1. Hypnotic suggestions attenuate S1-S2 related negative potentials, possibly by affecting cognitive functions. Hilgard, Ernest R. (1980, October). Hypnotic modification of sensitivity and control. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Chicago. The author presents a factor analysis of several scales in the hypnosis domain: HGSHS:A, Wilson-Barber CIS, Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C, Questionnaire on Mental Imagery (Sheehan's modification of Betts) and the Tellegen- Atkinson Absorption Scale. Scales were broken down into components first. He didn't report all of the factors, but shows how these tests fall on a graph defined by Factor 1 (Amnesia/Cognitive) and Factor 4 (Absorption/Imagery). "Capacity for fantasy and amnesia are so different that hypnosis probably includes both." Hilgard concludes that he doesn't like a state theory for hypnosis or the idea of "trance" because it is unidimensional. He prefers "dissociation" because we think of it as a continuum. Even Highs differ one from another in the nature of their responses. Altered- state-of-consciousness theories don't readily explain partial dissociation (e.g. persistence of a suggestion such as arm rigidity after hypnosis is terminated; or hysterical paralysis). Shevrin, Howard; Dickman, Scott (1980). The psychological unconscious: A necessary assumption for all psychological theory?. American Psychologist, 35 (5), 421-434. The notion of complex psychological processes operating outside of awareness has traditionally been associated with the concept of the unconscious used by psychodynamically oriented clinicians; it has never found an equivalent place in the mainstream of American experimental psychology. However, mounting evidence from several rather diverse fields of empirical research (e.g., selective attention, cortical evoked potentials, subliminal perception) provides support for such a concept, and, in fact, explanatory constructs of a similar nature have been embodied in several current models of perceptual processing. While there clearly remains an enormous gap between the clinically based conception and the experimentally based conception of the nature of these unconscious processes, they nevertheless seem to provide an interface between two seemingly disparate approaches to the understanding of personality. 1979 Ingram, Rick E.; Saccuzzo, Dennis P.; McNeill, Brian; McDonald, Roy (1979). Speed of information - processing in high and low susceptible subjects - preliminary study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27 (1), 42-47. A backward masking paradigm was employed to test the hypothesis that high hypnotic susceptible Ss are able to process information at a faster rate than low susceptible Ss. The critical interstimulus interval was determined for 8 high and 8 low susceptible Ss. A t-test analysis of the critical interstimulus intervals showed a significant difference between high and low susceptible Ss with the high susceptible Ss showing a lower critical interstimulus interval. Mean critical inter-stimulus intervals for the high (76 milliseconds) and low (98 milliseconds) susceptible groups suggested that the high susceptible Ss were an average of 22 milliseconds faster at processing information. Results were interpreted as being consistent with, and providing support for attentional theories of hypnosis. Spanos, Nicholas P.; Ansari, Ferhana; Stam, Henderikus J. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and eidetic imagery: A failure to replicate. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (1), 88-91. Walker, Garrett, & Wallace (1976) reported the restoration of eidetic imagery in hypnotically age-regressed subjects. In an attempted replication of that study, 60 subjects who previously scored high on hypnotic susceptibility were 'hypnotically regressed' to age 7. Before administration of the hypnotic procedures and again after age regression, subjects were tested for eidetic imagery using the random-dot stereograms employed by Walker et al. None of our subjects including those who were age regressed according to standard criteria and who reported having been eidetikers as children, were successful at the stereogram tasks. Although these results fail to replicate those of Walker et al., they are consistent with the available evidence concerning the performance of children on stereogram tasks. Contrary to the impression conveyed by Walker et al., children tested to date, including those classified as eidetikers by Haber and Haber's criteria, have been unsuccessful at stereogram tasks. 1978 Blum, Gerald S.; Porter, M. L.; Geiwitz, P. J. (1978). Temporal parameters of negative visual hallucination. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 30-44. Negative visual hallucination was investigated by hypnotically programming two highly trained undergraduates not to see the colored lines of consonants while perceiving clearly a set of dots superimposed on the lines in another color. Effects of three temporal parameters were noted in tachistoscopic presentations of the consonants: priming time, i.e., opportunity for the subject to prepare to execute the negative visual hallucination after the posthypnotic cue was flashed and before the consonant appeared; duration of consonant exposure; and intensive practice over protracted periods of time. Signal strength and inhibitory skill emerged as significant variables. This paper reports 4 experiments with two highly trained subjects. The authors conclude, "From these observations, signal strength and inhbiitory skill emerge as major determinants of the outcome in NVH. The stronger the input, the greater the likelihood of insufficient inhibitory action. Differences in skill show up at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis. Even the initially skilled F1 improved her NVH ability with practice, as inferred from the disappearance of undercalling. The lesser skill of F2 was evidenced in her longer required priming time, higher accuracy of color guesses, greater number of color breakthroughs, and reported feeling of mental strain" (p. 42). 1977 Fisher, R. (1977). On flashback and hypnotic recall. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 217-235. This essay deals with both the intra-individual and inter-individual varieties of arousal state-bound experiences. The former are labelled as "flashbacks" while the latter embrace the great fantasms and repetitive schemes, the ever re-written plots and images of literature, art, and religion. Flashbacks are both arousal-state and stage (i.e., set and setting) bound experiences. Flashback and hypnotic recall differ only in the ways by which they are induced. Induction methods should be distinguished from induced states on the hyperaroused perception-hallucination and hypoaroused eprception-meditation continuum. Flashbackers may be characterized by their (a) variability on perceptual-behavioral tasks; (b) tendency to minimize (or reduce) sensory input; (c) high resting heart rates; (d) hypnotizability; and, hence (e) preferential right-cerebral-hemispheric cognition; and (f) a display of EEG-alpha dominance in the resting, waking state. 1976 Slade, P. D. (1976). An investigation of psychological factors involved in the predisposition to auditory hallucinations. Psychological Medicine, 6 (1), 123-132. Previous research by the author (Slade, 1972, 1973) and others has suggested that psychological stress plays an important role in triggering off the experience of auditory hallucinations. Clearly, however, predispositional factors are involved as well. The present study is an attempt to investigate some of the psychological factors which may predispose the individual to such experiences. A battery of tests involving cognitive, personality and mental imagery variables and the verbal transformation effect was administered to two small groups of psychotic patients differing only in respect of a history of auditory hallucinations and a normal control group. The main conclusion was that the results lend direct support to the proposition of Mintz & Alpert (1972) that a combination of vivid mental imagery and poor reality-testing in the auditory modality provides the basic predisposition for the experience of auditory hallucinations. 1972) that a combination of vivid mental imagery and poor reality-testing in the auditory modality provides the basic predisposition for the experience of auditory hallucinations. 1972 Graham, Charles; Leibowitz, Herschel W. (1972). The effect of suggestion on visual acuity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 20, 3. In experiment one, all subjects participating attained the maximum score on the BSS. The subjects were hypnotized and post-hypnotic suggestions were given to the effect that the subject really knew how well they could see, and this was contingent upon relaxation. The patient was now given an opportunity to re-read the eye charts. It was found that in this experiment, myopic visual acuity was significantly improved through the use of hypnosis and positive suggestion. In experiment two, subjects who scored the maximum and the minimum on the BBS were used. The same procedure was used as in number one except that the highly susceptible subjects were told that "various studies had demonstrated that being hypnotized was not a pre-requisite for obtaining improvement." The insusceptibles were told that "acuity improved under hypnosis, but like many other phenomena associated with hypnosis, improvement in vision was also well within the reach of the non-hypnotizable subjects, if they simply learned to relax their eyes." it was found that myopic visual acuity was significantly improved in the absence of a formal hypnotic induction. This improvement was for the highly hypnotizable subjects only, and did not transfer to outside the experimental situation. In experiment three, subjects were used who scored the maximum on the BSS and the Harvard Group Scale. Testing was done in both the hypnotized and waking state. it was found that the rank order correlation between initial and final acuity levels was .98 (p<.001), indicating the effect of suggestion was selective. Sutcliffe, J. P. (1972). Afterimages of real and imaged stimuli. Australian Journal of Psychology, 24 (3), 275-289. Tested 45 university students and 15 7-10 yr. olds for after-images of images and of real stimuli. 8 different colored stimuli were used and observations made enabled a check on reliability. Real stimuli typically produced negative afterimages in most Ss. Only half the Ss could project images of the stimuli, only 1/3 reported afterimages of those images, and of those images only 7% were negative. Afterimages of images had a longer latency and a shorter duration than afterimages of real stimuli. Thus qualitatively and quantitatively afterimages of images differ from afterimages of real stimuli. Findings are related to individual differences in general vividness of imagery. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1970 Fromm, Erika; Oberlander, Mark I.; Gruenewald, Doris (1970). Perceptual and cognitive processes in different states of consciousness: The waking state and hypnosis. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 34, 375-387. Hypnosis was assumed to influence perceptual and cognitive functioning in the direction of increased primary process ideation and adaptive regression. The Rorschach test was administered to 32 Ss in the waking state and under hypnosis in counterbalanced order. Hypnosis was induced by a standardized procedure. Ss received identical instructions for the Rorschach in both conditions. Protocols were scored according to Holt's system for manifestations and control of primary -duced by a standardized procedure. Ss received identical instructions for the Rorschach in both conditions. Protocols were scored according to Holt's system for manifestations and control of primary process. Hypnotic Rorschachs showed an increase in primary process manifestations, but no changes in defensive and coping functioning, and no overall changes in the Adaptive Regression Score. However, the nature of the data was found to be influenced by Ss' sex and level of adjustment. 1969 Graham, Kenneth (1969). Brightness contrast by hypnotic hallucination. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 62-73. Tested the veridicality of a hypnotic hallucination elicited by a buzzer through a conditioning procedure. The stimulus to be hallucinated consisted of 2 gray circles, 3 in. in diameter, mounted on a white card. 11 highly susceptible Ss were able to produce this hallucination upon hearing the buzzer during a series of test trials following the training. Following a 2nd training series, a black and white background was provided for the hallucination and Ss tended to report the hallucinated circles as a brightness contrast. A 2nd group of highly susceptible Ss was not hypnotized, but was asked to respond as if hypnotized. These Ss tended not to report the contrast. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1966 Andreasen, A. G.; Singer G. (1966). Hypnosis and hypnotizability: Delusion or simulation?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14 (3), 257-267. Because Sutcliffe (see 36:4) showed that hypnotic suggestions are not comparable in sensory content with real stimuli, the postulated difference between "pseudoperception" and "simulation" as indexed by reported subjective experiences of hypnotic Ss was tested. From 215 undergraduates, 30 high-susceptibility (HS) and 30 low-susceptibility (LS) Ss made kinesthetic and visual judgments of horizontality. A significant response, not attributable to simulation, was found only for the HS-hypnosis induction group; the effect was not attributable individually to susceptibility, hypnosis induction, or motivation. It is concluded that hypnosis, defined by this significant interaction effect between high susceptibility and hypnosis induction can be interpreted as a pseudoperceptual response to suggestion. (Spanish & German summaries) (28 ref.) (PsycINFO 1965 Jackson, Bill (1965). The autoblink: A technique to explore nonveridical visual perception. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 250-260. The Autoblink technique was developed to allow objective, quantitative investigation of perceptual abnormalities found in psychiatric and normal populations under various experimental conditions. A pilot study demonstrated that spontaneous visual percepts could be elicited by this technique in a group of psychiatric patients and that wide individual differences were present. A 2nd study found significant differences in Autoblink rate between normal and hallucinating psychotic male Ss and also suggested that sensory deprivation and prestige suggestion are variables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) -ables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Brady, J. P.; Levitt, E. E. (1964). Hypnotically-induced 'anosmia' to ammonia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 18-20. The procedure to demonstrate anosmia by the inhalation of ammonia is discussed. Deeply hypnotized Ss who are not knowledgeable of the relevant facts of physiology may fail to respond to ammonia fumes when it is suggested that they have no sense of smell (anosmia). However, persons who, in fact, are anosmic do respond to ammonia fumes because they are a powerful stimulus to the pain fibers in the nasal mucosa. This procedure illustrates that the crucial factor in the response of the hypnotized S is not the actual facts of anatomy and physiology, but the S''''s concept of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1961 Pearson, R. E. (1961). Response to suggestion given under general anesthesia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 4, 106-114. Employed a double-blind design with placebo control. Audio tapes containing therapeutic suggestions were played to 43 experimental patients during anesthesia. The main theme of the suggestions was that the patient would cope better and recover faster if he could become relaxed. Placebo tapes (music or blank tapes) were played to the 38 control patients. Only E, who had no contact with the patients, knew which tape was played to a given patient. Three postoperative variables were studied: (a) number of doses of narcotics in the first 5 postoperative days; (b) a numerical rating by the surgeon of the postoperative course; and (c) number of postoperative days until release. Although no significant differences were found between the suggestion group and placebo group on need for narcotics or rated course of recovery, patients receiving suggestions were discharged an average of 2.42 days sooner (p < .05). 1960 Salzberg, Herman Carl (1960). The effects of hypnotic, posthypnotic, and waking suggestion on performance using tasks varied in complexity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 251-258. 5 Ss were instructed to respond with a reaction time key to colors and figures presented tachistoscopically. In the 1st series of experiments a steady reaction to figures (with the right hand) and to colors (with the left hand) was established. In the 2nd series figures and colors were presented 1 by 1 at random, and the Ss had to react according to the previously established habit. In the 3rd series combinations of figures and colors were shown and the Ss had to react with both hands at the same time. 4 different types of reactions were observed in the last series depending upon the shifting or the distribution of attention. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CE87P. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF06N. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF14L. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF17S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Sukhakarn, Khun Vichit (1960/1962). Extra ocular vision [Letter]. British Journal of Medical Hypnotism, 14 (2), 41-47 The article is in the original form of a letter to Herbert Spiegel, M.D. The author describes experiences training subjects, both blind and with normal vision, to 'see' through the skin of their cheeks. Training involved concentrative meditation (Buddhist) and hypnosis. Simple tests were performed, apparently independently, by two other scientists. "From information available from our subjects, the Extra Ocular Vision gained through the cheek-skin is different from those through the eyes as best explained here below:-- (1) The vision through the cheek-skin first takes a form of a series of spots somewhat like the image of coarse gain prints. Only after further training the spots are transformed into a clear object, so clear that needle threading is possible. (2) Objects seen through the cheek-skin are as clear as through the eyes. Distant objects can be magnified by the subject's wish, just like looking through an opera glass. (3) The vision gained through the cheek-skin is first 'seen' in black and white, and the 'colour picture' is achieved only after further training. But the colour 'seen' through the cheek is more intense than those through the eyes. (4) The field of vision 'seen' through each side of the cheek is more narrow than those seen through each eye. (5) There is a sign indicating that the vision through the cheek is only two-dimensional, the subjects find it difficult at first to stand the finger to another finger test" (p. 42). 1957 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1957). Hypnosis as perceptual-cognitive restructuring: I. Analysis of concepts. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (4), 147-166. "Summary 1. 'Trance' involves a selective and relative inattention to internal and external stimulation. 2. Hypnosis involves one type of 'trance' behavior but hypnosis differs from other types of 'trance' in that it is an interpersonal relationship in which one person, the operator, restructures the 'perceptions' and conceptions of the other person, the subject. 3. The operator _can_ restructure the thoughts and 'perceptions' of the 'good' hypnotic subject because (a) the subject is relatively detached and inattentive to his self and his surroundings and (b) the subject is 'set' -- he is ready and willing -- to accept the operator's words as true statements and to 'literally think as the operator wants him to think.' 4. 'Perceptual-cognitive restructuring' and not 'suggestion' is the essential element in hypnosis. 5. We can begin to understand hypnosis and the phenomena of hypnosis by one general principle: the hypnotic subject behaves differently because he 'perceives' and conceives differently. The behavior of the hypnotic subject is in strict accordance with his altered conceptions of his self and his surroundings" (p. 162). 1955 Naruse, Gosaku; Obonai, Torao (1955). Decomposition and fusion of mental images in the post-hypnotic hallucinatory state. II: Mechanism of image composing activity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (1), 2-23. Summary. This is a report of the studies continued from the previous work, as regards the mode and law of modification of images, by experiments on the image-fusion which is observed in a post-hypnotic hallucinatory state. The writers investigated the configuration law of the Gestalt school, also whether there was nothing other than the overlapping of images. Various experiments were performed using accorded figures (Fig.1), discorded figures (Fig. 3), the composed image partly changed in size (Fig. 4), the incomplete figures with concrete meaning (Fig. 5,A) and the figures in which the perception and meaning were discorded with each other (Fig. 6). The results were as follows: (1) There were some subjects whose images were clear, and others whose images were vague. In general, the images were clear in deep hypnotic trance, and vague in the medium trance. (2) In the case of the clear images, they were prominently overlapping while in the case of the vague images, they overlapped one another and were disjointed or integrated. (3) After conditioning two kinds of figures with two kinds of sounds, a composed image could be aroused by the two stimuli; in this case, by changing the tempo of one kind, a part of the composed image was changed. This fact would prove that the composed images were combinations of elements. (4) In the case of the integrated images, the modification of both clear and vague images could be explained satisfactorily not by the Gestalt theory but by the intervention of the meaning. Moreover, the hypothesis of the integration or hierarchy of cerebral functions corresponding to these phenomena was possible. (5) Modification through meaning was more frequent in the vague images than in the clear ones. (6) The spontaaneous effect of meaning of the image was dependent on the depth of trance. This effect was comparatively weak in deep trance and strong in medium trance. It was assumed that in medium trance which reproduced the integrated images, meaning activity still remained. (7) Having presented incomplete figures with concrete meanings to examine the effect of meaning, it was clear that the modification of images by meaning took place distinctly under the influence of suggestion. If perception and meaning of the figure were made to be in discord with each other, the meaning suggested at the time of conditioning produced more effect on the modification of the image than that at the time of recall" (p. 22). 1953 Kline, Milton V. (1953). Hypnotic retrogression: A neuropsychological theory of age regression and progression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1, 21-28. Author's Summary - In a review of the salient aspects of research in hypnotic age regression an evaluation of the data tended to indicate that under certain conditions valid age regression is discussed in the light of a neuropsychological theory of age regression. This theory based upon a concept of hypnotic retrogression views regression and progression phenomena in hypnosis as a form of psychological activity involving disorientation for the subject and a reorganization of his perceptual equilibrium and control mechanisms with particular reference to time-space perception. The term hypnotic retrogression is used to describe the centrally induced state which alters time-space perception and renders hypnotic regression and progression possible. Performance 1997